Do Your Homework Before Choosing Your Home Loan

Almost everyone dreams to own a home. Earlier, the situation in India was different. People used to be afraid of availing a home loan because they used to think that only the affluent and those who belonged to the upper class could afford it. But thanks to the liberalisation and increases in incomes, a number of people who belong to the middle class also can decide to go for home loans for buying their homes.

A number of banks and non-banking financial institutions offer home loans. They make attractive offers also to inspire borrowers to avail these loans. The growth of the real estate sector in India has also been phenomenal in the recent decades. However, people should not make hasty decisions while availing these loans. They must gather all the information before choosing the perfect home loan that suits them. They must understand every factor involved in the loans, the terms that are imposed by the lending banks, the repayment options, etc.

SBI home loan, ICICI home loan, Axis Bank home loan etc and some of the loans offered by non-banking financial institutions like LIC Housing Finance Limited are quite popular. Some of these lending institutions provide loans not only for constructing or buying houses and apartments but for other related purposes as well. This means that we now have diverse products that have been designed to cater to the needs of various types of borrowers.

This seems to pose a challenge to the borrowers, but in reality, if borrowers do a good research, they can choose the most appropriate loan. Sites like are one-stop shops that provide customers with all the details. So, borrowers can visit these sites for knowing the details and making up their minds. Borrowers should take into account certain other factors also while choosing a property and while deciding on a loan.


While choosing a property, customers should check if the property they are considering comes at a price they can afford. Though one may expect higher incomes in future, they should not commit the mistake of considering their future income while choosing the property because no one can predict how future events may turn in a person’s life. So, they should take only the present income into account while choosing a property and an appropriate loan suitable for it.

Choosing the Lending Bank

Borrowers should choose the lending bank that offers the best benefits and the most attractive features. They are advised to do their research thoroughly and shortlist at least 5 lending banks or institutions and study their features. They must study the quality of their services also. They can inquire with the past customers of the lending banks or visit their websites for assessing the quality of services they render.

Rates of Interest

Rates of interest may differ from one bank to another. Borrowers should know these details and choose the bank that offers the best rates.

Tenure of Repayment

Borrowers should choose the most appropriate repayment tenure because they should have sufficient disposable income for their monthly expenses.

In short, borrowers should take time to consider all aspects before finalizing a home loan option.

Author Bio –  S. Muthu Kumara Swamy – I have always been interested in personal finance and had an urge to explore a variety of finance products ranging from loans to investments. As a finance professional in my current role as a Content Manager,, I create video content on varied personal finance subjects for TV shows. I also manage online forum activities, social media and interactive online content initiatives.

The Smart Way to Buy a Car

The average American spends around $10,000 a year on their car. That’s a good chunk of change that could be put to better use. (Imagine all the penny candies you could buy! . . . ahem, or the contribution you could make to your retirement fund or mortgage.) If you need to buy a car, pay cash for it—every time. This may sound ludicrous, but it is possible. It just takes a little planning and strategy.

The owners of most luxury cars, surprisingly, are average, middle-class Americans who have been duped by the lie of consumerism. Consumerism tells us that if we drive that fancy, new-smelling car, we will look sexier and feel better about our lives. The strangers who pull up next to us at red lights will be disgustingly envious and we will have an absolutely defining sense of happiness and self-worth.

Really, the only thing we’ll have is an ulcer from all the stress that paying for that car will give us. Here’s why.

How Most Americans Buy a Car

  1. Lease

Car dealers offer leases hoping that you’ll focus on the low monthly payments rather than all the money that you’ll actually lose in the long run. Leasing a car is basically renting a car for a really long time. Leases trick people into thinking that they can drive a nice car for less money than it would take to buy the same car. What people don’t realize is that they actually end up paying more on their leased car, especially if the car gets even slightly damaged or they exceed the mileage limit.


  1. Buy It New

It’s become part of the typical American way of life to have a monthly car payment. Because it’s expected, many car buyers figure they might as well get a new car. After all, a new car will be more reliable, right? This may be true in some cases, but you could pay for the repairs on a used car several times over with the money you would save by not buying a new car. The average monthly payment for a new car is around $500. That’s $500 that you have to come up with every month no matter what your financial status is. More good news: new cars lose about 20% of their value as soon as you drive them off the lot and about half their value within four years.

Either way they go—leasing or buying new—most Americans are wasting money on their car. You know who isn’t falling into this trap? The rich. Rich people don’t get to where they are (and stay there) by just trying to look rich. They’re smart with their money, and they’re smart about buying cars. Whether or not you’re rich at the moment you’re reading this, you can be smart about your automobile purchases. Here’s how.



How YOU Should Get a Car

  1. Save $1500 and buy a used car.

Sound crazy? (And lousy?) Don’t worry, this is just the first step. You can get a surprisingly reliable car for about $1000 (the remaining $500 is for repairs). Most car buyers worry about mileage; many cars run well even after 200,000 miles. The Guinness world record for highest mileage on a car is 3 million miles.

  1. Talk to your Aunt Gertrude

Buying cars from family or friends is the way to go. You’re more likely to get a good deal and less likely to get a bad car. And if aunty does sell you a lemon…well, you know where she lives.

  1. Have the car inspected.
    Before buying the car, take it to a mechanic for a basic inspection. This will cost less than $100 and you’ll know what you’re getting into. Also get a vehicle history report for the car. You’ll want to know what kind of accidents the car has been in, just in case there are hidden damages or the quoted price is too high. Many websites offer free reports or you can sign up on for about $30 a month.
  2. Buy a reputable sedan.

The more common and reputable the car, the less expensive the repairs will be. Small cars tend to be more reliable, while SUVs tend to have more problems.

  1. Create a “OneDayIWon’tOwnaCrappyCar” fund

Now imagine the car you like to have some day. Figure out how much your monthly car payment would be if you went out and bought that car new right now, and save that money in your new fund. Pay yourself as religiously as you would pay off the loan and in a few years you can buy that car—in cash. (That is, if you haven’t realized that driving an old car really isn’t that bad and you could put that money into something with a higher return, like a house.)

It may be easier and “cooler” to run out and get a new car. But there’s nothing cool about a stressful monthly payment. With just a little planning and some sacrifice, you can ensure that you’ll never have a car payment again.


Edson Senna is a freelance writer who specializes in finance and law. He sometimes does consulting for lemon law attorneys like Jon Jacobs. In his free time, Edson enjoys biking, hiking, and running.

5 Ways to Save on Car Repairs

Owning a car is much more expensive than you might have thought as a teenager. In high school, you drove the “kid’s car” and filled up a few times, and in college you hardly drove at all because your roommates had nicer cars. But the costs of owning a car start to build once it becomes a necessity instead of a luxury. Car payments, insurance, gas, and repairs add up fast—sometimes too fast for the budget. Unfortunately, some of these costs are unavoidable, like monthly payments or how much gas you use to commute back and forth to work.

Other costs are somewhat negotiable. It may not seem that car repairs are one of these, but in many situations the costs of repair can be prevented or, at the very least, reduced.

Prevent and Protect

It might be a pain in your side to take your car into the shop every 3,000 miles (or however often your owner’s manual suggests) to get that oil change taken care of, but it will be worth it. Your car might not give you problems if you wait until 3,500 miles to change the oil, but that doesn’t mean that your car isn’t being damaged internally. And even if your car seems to be in fine condition, it’s always better to prevent than repair.
Make a habit of taking your car into the shop regularly just to get a quick check-up and make sure that everything is working properly. It might cost you a few dollars to have the mechanics look it over, but you’ll save money in the long run if you can catch major problems before they happen.

Don’t Procrastinate

Small and simple repairs can turn into nightmares if they are not treated promptly. It might seem that you’re saving yourself time and money by putting off repairs like a small oil leak or the laundry list of minor problems the mechanic gives you when you go in for a larger repair, but the exact opposite is true. Small, relatively inexpensive problems will turn into much more extensive, expensive repairs they longer you put them off.
When the mechanic reads you that list of maintenance items, take care of everything you can while you’re there. If your budget won’t let you fix everything they recommend, take note of what you didn’t have them do and figure it into the budget over the next few months. The sooner they get done, the better chance you’ll have of avoiding larger-scale problems.

Choose the Right Mechanic

Don’t settle for the nearest auto shop out of convenience. It can be hard to find a mechanic you know and trust, but take the time to look around. Once you’ve found a business that you feel treats you fairly, make yourself a regular customer. If they get to know your face and car, they might be more willing to offer you deals and advice.

Finding a trustworthy mechanic will not only reduce expenses—it will reduce stress. Knowing you always take your car to the same auto repair shop in Vancouver, even if the drive is farther than the place around the block, will save you the stress of wondering if the mechanics are going to treat you and your car fairly.

Buy Discount Parts

Many car shops will let you bring your own parts in to fix car problems. Find out your repair shop’s policy before you green light the repair. If you can bring in the parts yourself, all you’ll have to pay for at the shop is the labor. There will be a cost for the parts, of course, but you can usually find them cheaper than the high prices a repair shop often charges.

You can often find cheap parts at discount auto stores, online retailers, and salvage yards. If you’re getting body work done on your car, check salvage yards first for bumpers, side mirrors, and even doors or hoods. Go online to find engine parts and belts. Do your research, and with a little bit of extra time you’ll be able to keep the budget balanced and your car in good condition.

Do Simple Work Yourself

Even if you’re not car savvy, it will be worth it to take the time to learn how to do some simple maintenance. Replacing windshield wiper blades, doing oil changes, replacing air filters, and filling your fluids are all easy enough to do once you know how. Find a friend who knows what they’re doing and ask them to give you a few pointers—the money you save will more than compensate for the time and effort you spend doing your own repairs.

Author Bio: Melanie Hargrave is a wife and homemaker whose pride and joy is her family. In addition to spending time with her husband and daughters, she loves being outdoors, playing sports, and finding ways to be financially savvy. In her spare time, she blogs for companies like Minit-Tune in Vancouver.

Make Smart Investments During Your Golden Years

The retirement savings of most Americans suffered a critical blow as the result of the Great Recession. Prior to the collapse of the housing market, most middle class families built wealth by taking advantage of appreciating home values adding to the equity in their homes, recently they saw their nest egg shrink dramatically. Many people who lost their jobs had difficulty finding new employment opportunities, which meant they had to dip into their retirement savings. Even those people who kept their job realized dismal rates of return on their savings because of low interest rates and reluctance to invest in stocks due to market volatility. According the a survey conducted by the Employee Benefits Research Institute discussed in the Wall Street Journal (see Workers Saving Way To Little To Retire), 57 percent of Americans have less than $25,000 in retirement savings, which is a significant increase from 49 percent when the same question was asked in 2008. This leaves the majority of Americans with two choices…work longer or make smart investments during their retirement years.

Tips for Making Smart Investments during Retirement

Your retirement investment strategy does not have to stop working just because you do. Here are some smart investment tips so your money can work for you as you enjoy your golden years.

  1. Preserve as much as Principle as Possible: Traditionally, financial advisors recommended that retirees limited their annual withdrawals to 4 percent of their retirement savings. In today’s low interest rate environment, along with the fact that people tend to live longer now than they did in the past, experts recommend limiting annual withdrawals to 2.5 to 3 percent of principle. Another way to preserve your savings is to invest in high quality stocks that offer dividends or to make smart investments in annuities.
  2. Adjust the Allocation of Your Savings as You Age: A smart investment mix for people who retire at age 65 is 40 to 60 percent in a highly diversified stock portfolio and the remaining portion of the savings in short-term high yielding bonds, cash, and annuities. As you age, you need to shift the allocation of your portfolio gradually until it is 10 to 15 percent in stocks if you are using a conservative investment strategy or up to 30 percent stocks if you have a high level of risk tolerance. Target date funds offer the convenience of automatically shifting the mix of your investments according to a predetermined timetable, which is referred to as a gliding path. Stocks provide the advantage of offering a means to offset inflation.
  3. Make Smart Investments in Annuities: While annuities are smart investments since they offer a guaranteed income stream for life, you need to use them strategically since they do not adjust with the rate of inflation. One option is to use laddering, which involves purchasing small annuities at set intervals, which takes advantage of the fact that the payouts from annuities increase as you age. Another option is to purchase deferred income annuities, which also help offset the effects of inflation.

By making smart investments during your retirement years, you can make you money work for you so you can enjoy your golden years.

The investment writer , Mike Hayes, has always given several helpful strategies in proliferating income and investment. Check out more interesting articles at Nick Scali Limited . Mike also likes great literature and basketball.

5 Ways To Offset The Cost Of Homeowners Insurance

Owning a home means planning on various types of expenses. One of those expenses is the payment each month for homeowners insurance. Homeowners will pay for their homeowners insurance by sending payment to their agent, directly to the insurance company, or having their mortgage company make the payment when it is due. If your cost for homeowners insurance is increasing, then a few tips are available that can help lower or offset the annual cost.

Shop Around

Many insurance companies operate in every state and may offer homeowners insurance. The best thing to do when searching for a new insurance company is to find an independent insurance agent. They are typically licensed with many insurance companies. Many use specific software that gives them a list of companies and their rates for a homeowner’s insurance policy. Homeowners can then the policies to see if any will provide the necessary savings. Make sure to compare policies every few years to see if there is another company that is offering a better price for a policy.


Consumers can save up to ten percent or more on the cost of homeowners insurance by choosing a high deductible. The deductible is an amount that is deducted from the insurance payout whenever a claim is made by an insured. This means a higher deductible will be less the insurance company will pay out for a claim. This is why policies with higher deductibles cost less than policies with lower deductible. If an existing customer with a $500 deductible raises it to $1500 or more, then the savings will be significant when the premium is calculated.

Add Security Features

Insurance companies offer discounts when a home has certain security features. A basic discount can be provided when doors have a deadbolt lock. Another discount will be provided when a home has at least one smoke detector and a carbon monoxide detector. A home that also has a fire extinguisher on hand is also eligible for a discount. There are simple things that will lower the cost of homeowners insurance if they are not currently applied to a policy. Review the declarations page of the policy for your home and see if these discounts apply.

Combine Policies

A substantial discount is provided to customers of an insurance company when they have their house and car insured. If a home and car is insured by the same company, then a multi-policy discount can be applied to lower the cost of both policies. Insurance companies typically offer a discount that will be in a range between 10 and 20 percent.

Calculate Coverage

Insurance agents often use software that estimates the amount of insurance for a homeowner. If there is no need to have a high amount of coverage for personal property, then a lower value decreases the total cost. However, a homeowner should add up the value of items in a home such as furniture and all types of electronics to calculate a basic value.

Contact a local agent or view policy options online to see if other options are available.

Author Bio: Thomas Jay is a content writer at Thomas lives in beautiful Orlando, Florida with his wife a two kids. He is an avid sports fan and enjoys blogging on a variety of topics.

Is Holiday Home A Good Investment?

A home somewhere warm and with a lovely environment is something that most of us dream about. Instead of living in a hotel it seems like a more attractive option to get your own apartment and spend a few weeks living more like the locals.

There are now more and more people buying into this dream and renting a holiday home abroad. But is this really a good investment opportunity?

What Does A Holiday Home Mean?

A holiday home is something that can help you add extra income to your finances in a relatively simple and nice way. You will purchase a house or an apartment in your preferred location and use it as your holiday home.

But instead of letting the apartment stay empty during the times you aren’t in, you rent it out to give yourself the opportunity to make some money out of it.

How To Get A Holiday Home?

A lot of the success of a holiday home depends on the amount of planning you do beforehand. The key to success is to spend a lot of time considering your own budget and thinking about what you want from the apartment. You need to make sure you are equipped in buying the holiday home and make a budget to see how much you need to take in as rent in order to pay back the property and start making money out of it.

Dalton’s Property also reminds that location is really the key thing in a good holiday home. Thus you need to spend a good amount of time looking into different areas and in the holiday opportunities in the area. Even though you are in love with a certain small townit might be that other holiday goers don’t know about it and thus you won’t be able to generate so much profit.

You don’t want to end up having to spend a lot of time marketing your home. Therefore it is always a good idea to focus on the location and get tips from experts.

Possibility For A Great Success

The truth is that buying a holiday home as investment can end up being a great choice. Not only is it able to provide you with a steady stream of additional income it will also be a nice way to spend your own holidays and have them stress-free.

The important thing you need to know is that this success isn’t simply guaranteed when you buy a holiday home. If you want this investment to succeed you will need to do a lot of research and planning before you get into this. It may be a good idea to consider other investment options, such as buying private equity at Dealmarket.

It is also really important you don’t get into a lot of debt when buying the holiday home.

But if you are prepared to look into the matter and perhaps ask professional opinion, a holiday home can be a nice option to consider. In terms of risks it is at the low end compared to other forms of investment but it will be a long-term investment so you need patience.


Author Bio: Deborah is into finding new investment opportunities and helping out people to make smart investment choices to secure their financial future. She is a big fan of spending time with her friends and loves going to musicals.

Top 5 Ways to Pay Off Logbook Loans

Loan payments on top of rent, bills, food and other living costs can seem like a burden, and it’s often difficult to work out just where the money’s going to come from. But it needn’t bring you down – with a straightforward logbook loan there are a number of simple repayment methods you can draw on to keep on top of things.

Use a reliable lender with repayment options to suit you
There are many logbook loan lenders out there more interested in taking your money, or car, or both than helping those with short-term cash flow problems. Use a reputable, reliable company such as V5 Loans UK, with whom you can work together to come up with a loan repayment plan lasting up to 78 weeks on loans between £500 and £20,000.

Don’t be punished for paying early
Some logbook loan companies impose early settlement penalties – meaning that if you gain access to funds and choose to pay off what you owe over a shorter period then you will be charged extra. Choosing a lender like V5 Loans UK, who charge no early settlement fees, means that you’ll get no nasty surprises if you decide to pay off your loan sooner than planned.

Extra work
When you’re already working a gruelling forty-hour week, taking on more work may be the last thing you want to do. But even just one extra hour a day can make all the difference at the end of the month. If are paid by the hour, consider asking your manager if you can work an extra hour every day. On the national minimum wage of £6.31 an hour, an extra hour work a day will give you an additional gross sum of £126.20 at the end of the month – a tidy amount that could make a great deal of difference. If extra hours at your current workplace aren’t available, consider hospitality work on evenings and weekends – many agencies offer casual zero-hours contracts meaning you can choose to work at times convenient to you. Alternatively, if you fancy yourself as a writer, paid blogging websites such as Triond publish your content on other sites and pay you a share of the advertising revenue.

Alter your shopping habits
Substantial savings can be made from switching to non-branded food and toiletries, which are often indistinguishable from branded items and come at just a fraction of the price. A Panorama study showed that exchanging branded goods for ‘own’ brands yields a potential yearly saving of £4,000 – a figure which could pay off a large amount, or even all, of your logbook loan. Combine buying unbranded food with V5 Loans UK’s ‘no early settlement fees’ policy and you have a recipe for success.

Have a clear-out
Websites such as eBay, Gumtree and Amazon Marketplace are a great way to make some quick cash whilst clearing room in your home by getting rid of belongings you no longer need or use. Instead of allowing them to gather dust on a shelf, put your old DVDs, games and books up for sale and create wardrobe space by selling clothes you no longer wear – even if they don’t appear to be fetching a lot of money, it all adds up and in the end this could make a sizeable contribution to your repayments.

Though it may seem daunting, making small savings here and there and earning some extra cash isn’t difficult. Taking action today can ensure your logbook loan is paid off sooner rather than later, and a successfully paid-off loan can boost your credit score, making you more eligible for a loan from banks and other lending institutions.

Logbook Loans vs. Payday Loans – What Are The Differences?

Short-term solutions to cash-flow problems are heavily promoted across television and the Internet. So what is the best deal for consumers in need of immediate finance?

What may seem like the best choice, for anyone who needs fast cash, is a standard payday loan. Are there better alternatives on the market? A logbook loan from a regulated money lender like V5 Loans is, unlike payday loans, secured against the value of a vehicle. Both types of loan are considered to be short-term solutions. Take a look at the main differences between logbook loans and payday loans below:

Secured or Unsecured?

A logbook loan uses your vehicle as collateral to ensure a secured loan. V5 Loans is a secure alternative to unlicensed lenders. Since consumers are required to own a car that is free (or nearly free) of finance, this affects the eligibility of potential applicants. In contrast, payday loans are unsecured and present a higher risk to consumers in need of quick cash.

Credit Checks

Payday loans companies tend to perform extensive background checks on all applicants, and reject those with a poor credit history or zero credit rating. Conversely, V5 Loans do not perform credit checks on consumers, all they ask is proof of income and car ownership.

How Much Can I Borrow?

Payday loans provide considerably less money to successful applicants (at high APR rates) than sums agreed in a logbook loan. Logbook loan fees are dependent on a professional evaluation of your car and thousands of pounds can be paid out within 24 hours. Don’t forget, a high APR rate in a logbook loan is offset by a flexible service and complete transparency in the procedure. Therefore, it is important to contact a reputable and licensed loan lender like V5 Loans.

Loan Repayments

Get in touch with a money lender that does not charge early settlement fees, particularly if you acquire a logbook loan as the loan amount tends to be higher. Timely loan payments can boost your future credit rating, making your credit score a more attractive proposition with banks and other high street lenders.

Payment Methods

Check to see if the loan repayment schedule can be tailored to your lifestyle, a flexible loans service will incorporate a variety of payment methods, including bank transfers and standing order payments.

Choose a logbook loan company like V5 Loans for a hassle-free, straightforward and flexible loan arrangement. If you own a vehicle then a same day, secured loan will enable you to take control of your finances once more.

Need some extra money?

Need some extra money? Get a guarantor loan!

Let’s face it, at age 50 or above we are all already thinking about retirement (even though it still feels an age away). Well, if we are brutally honest, we have been thinking about it since we were 18… and maybe even earlier!

However, by the time we reach 50, the thought of retirement becomes much more real and when we are still struggling to make ends meet; retirement can seem much more of a dreaded reality than something we have been looking forward to for most of our lives.

I take incredible exception to a scaling down, ‘penny pinching’ mentality. Just because we are getting older does not mean that we should have to lower our standards in order to ensure that we maintain our standard of life.

Due to this, it is still important that we have exactly what we need in order to continue with our day to day lives. For example, if we need something fixing on our car after it has had an MOT or our boiler needs a repair because of a fault then we should not be scared to fix it purely because of the financial implications.

Despite this somewhat ‘care free and easy’ attitude, I know exactly what you are thinking while reading this: “I have a poor credit history and I have been denied a loan in the past. At my age, nobody will offer me a loan or credit.” This, however, could not be less true.

Despite credit history often being a barrier to securing a loan, we can now bypass our credit history by taking out out what is known as a ‘guarantor loan’ instead.

You are eligible for a guarantor loan if:

  • You have a friend or a family member who has agreed to be your guarantor if you are unable to pay your loan repayments.

  • Both you and your guarantor are in permanent employment.

You can even take a guarantor loan out if:

  • You have a poor credit history.

  • You have been decline for an unsecured loan.

In taking out a guarantor loan, you are able to rebuild your credit history and you do not have to secure the loan against your property as it is reliant upon a second person who will make the payment if you are unable to do so.

For more information on the finance of guarantor loans, visit 1st stop for quotes and more detailed information.

Everyone needs to grieve in their own way

Everyone needs to grieve in their own way, but you’re entitled to your inheritance.

Put simply, death is never pleasant and can shock families to the core. If a family member dies then emotions run high and family ties can become fraught.

Shock and grief are commonplace after bereavement and it is important to remember that everyone deals with the process differently. Some people take more time than others and people react differently in social situations. Just because someone is outgoing doesn’t mean that they’re not struggling. In fact, it can be them who have been affected the most and we need to be wary of their needs.

Often, bereavement brings families together and it is a chance for relatives who don’t often meet to bond: it is just a shame that this bonding process has a very somber tone.

However, such a tone can turn very sour if there is a financial dispute in the family. Generally this revolves around will disputes. As I’m sure you can imagine, even the slightest dispute can be blown out of proportion when tensions are running high. So, can you image the discovering that you’ve been ‘cut out’ of someone’s will? For many, this is simply the last straw.

Statistics show that almost two thirds of people do not have a will and an additional tenth of people admit to having made one without telling anyone where it is! Nearly half of those aged between 55 and 64 have not made a will (46%) with over a fifth having never thought about making one (22%), while over one in eight (13%) are relying on self-written wills, the validity of which is more likely to be challenged upon death.

The disputing of a will is complicated by a number of additional factors such as extended families or people being re-married after a divorce. This can mean that old rivalries re-surface and, as has previously been mentioned, relations can become fraught very quickly.

Years of legal challenges can come from cutting someone out of your will and it is never a decision that should be taken lightly.

As has been stated already, bereavement is a very long process and everyone deals with the process differently. However, if you feel like you’ve been ‘cut out’ of a will unfairly then you should act. Try contacting a company like Will Claim Solicitors to see if you can challenge the judgement with a no win no fee claim.